Ludwig van Beethoven

7. What are the five important achievements of the first period of Beethoven, with regard to harmony, form, and melodic writing? IMPORTANT!

8. Out of the first 19 opus numbers, 14 include the piano. Why this dominance of piano writing in the early period?

1. Compactness of musical ideas and motivic saturation

2. Shift of weight toward the Finale (from 1st movement)

3. Introduction of the Scherzo

4. Rhythmic Displacement

5. New harmonic ideas, especially the use of CHROMATIC MEDIANTS

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As a brilliant example of Beethoven's pioneering use of RHYTHMIC DISPLACEMENT, listen to this fantastic recording of the Scherzo from his String Quartet Op. 18 No. 6. Try to count and follow the beat as the piece unfolds: you will find it very difficult! As a matter of fact, this movement is one of the most difficult movements in all of Beethoven to execute precisely. SUPER DIFFICULT!